What are 10 year Treasury futures?

by Jennifer

10-year Treasury futures represent a cornerstone of the global financial markets, serving as essential instruments for investors seeking exposure to U.S. Treasury securities with a 10-year maturity while providing avenues for hedging interest rate risks and speculating on future interest rate movements. This article aims to provide a detailed exploration of 10-year Treasury futures, elucidating their mechanics, applications, and market implications within the broader landscape of fixed-income derivatives.

Understanding 10-Year Treasury Futures

10-year Treasury futures are standardized financial contracts that obligate the buyer to purchase, and the seller to deliver, a specified quantity of U.S. Treasury securities with a 10-year maturity at a predetermined price (the futures price) on a future date (the delivery or expiration date). These futures contracts are traded on organized exchanges, such as the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) or the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), under the oversight of regulatory bodies like the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).


Contract Specifications

The specifications of 10-year Treasury futures contracts outline critical parameters governing the terms of the futures agreement, including the underlying asset, contract size, tick size, trading hours, and expiration months. The underlying asset for 10-year Treasury futures contracts is U.S. Treasury securities with a face value of $100,000 and a maturity of approximately 10 years. Each tick movement in the futures price corresponds to a specified monetary value, with minimum price fluctuations determined by the exchange.


Trading Mechanics

Trading 10-year Treasury futures involves the execution of buy or sell orders through brokerage accounts, with trades cleared and settled through the exchange’s clearinghouse. Market participants can take either long (buy) or short (sell) positions in the futures market, depending on their market outlook and trading strategy. Long positions profit from an increase in Treasury bond prices (decrease in yields), while short positions profit from a decline in Treasury bond prices (increase in yields).

Applications of 10-Year Treasury Futures

a. Speculation: Market participants engage in speculative trading of 10-year Treasury futures to capitalize on anticipated movements in interest rates and bond prices. Speculative traders analyze macroeconomic indicators, monetary policy decisions, yield curve dynamics, and other factors to formulate trading strategies aimed at generating profits from price fluctuations in the futures market.

b. Hedging: Investors and institutions utilize 10-year Treasury futures to hedge against interest rate risks associated with their portfolios of fixed-income securities. By taking offsetting positions in Treasury futures contracts, market participants can protect against adverse movements in bond prices and yields, thereby mitigating potential losses stemming from changes in interest rates.

c. Arbitrage: Arbitrageurs exploit price differentials between 10-year Treasury futures contracts and underlying cash bond markets to capture risk-free profits. By simultaneously buying and selling corresponding positions in Treasury futures and cash bonds, arbitrageurs seek to capitalize on temporary discrepancies in pricing, thereby facilitating market efficiency and price convergence.

Factors Influencing 10-Year Treasury Futures Prices

The prices of 10-year Treasury futures are influenced by a myriad of factors, including prevailing interest rates, monetary policy decisions, economic indicators, inflation expectations, and market sentiment. Changes in interest rates have a direct impact on bond prices and yields, with inverse relationships between bond prices and interest rates. Expectations regarding future interest rate movements, as reflected in yield curve dynamics and forward rate agreements, also shape 10-year Treasury futures prices.

Market Implications

10-year Treasury futures play a significant role in shaping broader market dynamics and investor sentiment, serving as key indicators of interest rate expectations and bond market sentiment. Fluctuations in Treasury futures prices provide insights into market participants’ expectations for future monetary policy actions, economic growth prospects, and inflationary pressures. As such, 10-year Treasury futures serve as vital instruments for market participants, policymakers, and economists seeking to gauge market sentiment and anticipate shifts in economic conditions.


10-year Treasury futures represent an integral component of the global financial markets, offering investors exposure to U.S. Treasury securities with a 10-year maturity while providing avenues for risk management and speculation. By understanding the mechanics, applications, and market implications of 10-year Treasury futures, investors can navigate the fixed-income derivatives market with confidence and precision, capitalizing on opportunities and managing risks effectively in an ever-evolving financial landscape.

You May Also Like


Bnher is a comprehensive futures portal. The main columns include futures market, futures exchanges, futures varieties, futures basic knowledge and other columns.

[Contact us: [email protected]]

© 2023 Copyright – Futures Market, Investment, Trading & News